definition of mesothelioma
Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer found in the lining surrounding the lungs, stomach, and heart. It has been proven that mesothelioma cancer is caused by asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma is cancer that arises from exposure to asbestos or little fibers. These fibers are inhaled and they go through our nose and into the lung. These asbestos or little fibers go to the periphery of the lung. The lining of the lung called pleura. This asbestos or fiber causing inflammation there and this inflammation very rarely turn into cancer and that cancer are called mesothelioma.
Mesothelioma is a complex and fast-moving form of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos. There are approximately 3200 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed every year. Asbestos is a mineral that was widely used as a construction material everything from paint to roofing tiles to insulation because it has strong fibers that were resistant to fire and served as a good insulation. Asbestos fibers are jagged in shape and extremely tiny. Asbestos is About 500 times finer than a human hair.
The United States remains one of the only developed nations in the world that has not banned asbestos. Currently, it is legal to include asbestos in almost all types of American products as long as the product does not contain more than 1 percent asbestos. The US national institute for occupational safety and health maintains a recommended exposure limit of 0.1 asbestos fibers per cubic centimeter.
The person who’s around the asbestos inhales the particles. These particles worked there ways outer ways of the lung and the asbestos pokes there selves through the outer surface. With the constant movement of the lungs go in and out in the chest cage you basically get chronic irritation. This irritation can lead to the build plaque formation that we see the asbestos exposure. In certain percentage, this chronic irritation can also to the lead malignancy and so cancer then form from that.
But this process can take anywhere from 20 to 40 years to actually show up because the lung has the very large reserve so the lung can actually accommodate the significant amount of buildup of inflammation and also fluid buildup which is the very common way of presenting fluid on the lung before the patient actually reports feeling breathless. Very often the disease occurs on the one side of the lung the other lung can often compensate. When the patient has the lung removed they can function very well on one lung.
Once asbestos fibers are in the body, they never dissolve, and the body has extreme difficulty expelling them. Over years of time, trapped asbestos fibers can cause inflammation, scarring and eventually, genetic damage to the body’s cells and this inflammation very rarely turn into cancer and that cancer is called mesothelioma. Until 20 to 50 years after exposure to asbestos sign or symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear.
The prognosis for mesothelioma is poor unless is caught early, this because the cancer is extremely resilient and has typically spread to multiple organs by the times it detected. Mesothelioma disease can be tricky because early symptoms can be mistaken for less serious conditions like a bad cold or flu.
Mesothelioma disease is often discovered very late. Unfortunately this type of tumor mesothelioma it tends to be very invasive so it’s not only on the lining of the lungs but it actually tends to grow into the inside of the chest into the ribs, into the mussels. So the part of the staging procedure is not the only biopsy but do tests like an additional cat scan, MRI. That may allow you to determine whether or not the tissue has been involved with this tumor. In addition, pet scan or neuron technology will be used to level sugar can also be utilized to help find whether or not mesothelioma is spread beyond the particular area. Once you worked up and find its confine surgery is the way to go, its major surgery.
Pleural mesothelioma is the most common form of this disease that affects the cells in the lungs. About 75% of people diagnosed with mesothelioma have pleural mesothelioma.
Pleural mesothelioma signs and symptoms:
- Shortness of breath
- Pain in the chest due to an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.
- Fatigue or anemia.
- Blood in the sputum coughed up.
- Hoarseness or a cough.
Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the abdomen and pericardial mesothelioma affects the heart. Asbestos fiber can also end up in the stomach if saliva containing the material from the airways is swallowed. The tumor that affects the abdominal cavity often does not cause symptoms until they are at the last stage.
Peritoneal mesothelioma sign and symptoms:
- Problems with bowel functions
- Weight loss
- A mass in the abdomen
- Poor appetite, vomiting, constipation, night sweats
- Abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen
- Abdominal pain
- Swelling of the neck or face
- Trouble swallowing (feeling like food gets stuck)
Pericardial mesothelioma sign and symptoms.
Pericardial mesothelioma includes cardiac symptoms such as heart failure, cardiac tamponed, pulmonary embolism. Pericardial mesothelioma sign and symptoms are shortness of breath when lying flat, chest pain, and cough.
Immunotherapy for mesothelioma:
Immunotherapy enables a patient’s own immune system to combat the aggressive cancer cells. In a 2017 study of mesothelioma patient with Opdivo and Yervoy, approximately half responded well to combination therapy.
Keytruda is another immunotherapy drug showing promise in mesothelioma research. With this therapy over 50% of patient experienced tumor reduction.
A new therapy using Nano cells to deliver anti-cancer treatment puts one mesothelioma patient nearly into full remission. Partial or full remission is rarely reported among people with mesothelioma.
Photodynamic therapy is helpful for mesothelioma in combination with surgery. Photodynamic therapy kills remaining cancer cells left behind after surgery.
Stem cells vaccine:
Recurrence and help patients live longer. Researchers are developing a stem cells vaccine as a treatment option for mesothelioma. People with a history of asbestos exposure might be able to take the vaccine to prevent mesothelioma. This vaccine helps mesothelioma patient live longer by controlling cancer growth.
Life expectancy in mesothelioma patient:
Mesothelioma can be prevented in most cases by preventing exposure to asbestos. This disease is usually detected when it is advanced. Once the cancer cells have spread beyond that original location the mesothelioma considered advanced and surgery is often the no longer option. Chemotherapy is the only treatment for mesothelioma that has been proven to improve survival in randomized and controlled trials.
Life expectancy in mesothelioma patient ranges from only 12 to 21 months. Nearly half of the patient dies in the first year. A survival rate of malignant mesothelioma patient by stage is as per below.
- Stage 1: 21 months
- Stage 2: 19 months
- Stage 3: 16 months
- Stage 4: less than 12 months
Mesothelioma patient should know that scientist around the world is striving to develop the most effective treatment option for mesothelioma. Because of this, mesothelioma survivors are finally living longer than ever before.